IoT 23(1): e3

Research Article

Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Continuum

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eetiot.v9i1.2979,
        author={Kamal Shahi},
        title={Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Continuum},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Internet of Things},
        keywords={VGI, SDI, Open SDI, Future SDI, SDI Continnum},
  • Kamal Shahi
    Year: 2023
    Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Continuum
    DOI: 10.4108/eetiot.v9i1.2979
Kamal Shahi1,*
  • 1: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
*Contact email:


Spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is a system that supports the management and use of geospatial data and related resources. It involves the creation and maintenance of a network of organizations, people, and technology that enables the sharing of geospatial data across sectors and stakeholders. In recent years, the growth of geospatial data and the increasing reliance on it by various sectors has led to the emergence of new trends in SDI, such as the use of cloud computing and big data analytics, the integration of geospatial data with other types of data, and the emphasis on open data and data interoperability. Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to geospatial data that is collected and contributed by individuals or groups, rather than traditional sources using the application of web 2.0 and location based applications, social media, mobile devices or say citizens as the censors. Crowdsourcing in geospatial data generation concept of VGI has changed the traditional concept of SDI having one way relationship as producers and users to the user driven SDI, where user create diverse, high quality data (spatial, temporal, attribute) and also use the data interoperable, transparently, world widely and free of cost. Various authors have discussed about the application of VGI in the world of the digital data and also point outs the possibility of integration of VGI in SDI as the starting of the new generation of SDI in the form of Global GIS platform, Data Spaces, System of Systems (SoS), Geoverse, Digital Earth, Digital Twin, Virtual Geographic Environment (VGEs). However, there exists multiple VGI challenges such as data quality, data structure, data differentiation, data copyright, and data confidentiality and privacy, but with the proper cooperation and partnerships, policy and legal arrangements, standard developments, financial arrangements, inter/intra communication and added advantages of web 3.0, concept of Global Digital Ecosystem containing Geoverse, SDI and SoS is possible. Hence, VGI is the present and also the future in this SDI continuum.