IoT 21(24): e4

Research Article

Improved JPEG image watermarking in data compression domain using block selection strategy

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eai.8-2-2021.168690,
        author={M. Zairi and T. Boujiha and A. Ouelli},
        title={Improved JPEG image watermarking in data compression domain using block selection strategy},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Internet of Things},
        volume={6},
        number={24},
        publisher={EAI},
        journal_a={IOT},
        year={2021},
        month={2},
        keywords={JPEG, image watermarking, block selection, histogram shifting},
        doi={10.4108/eai.8-2-2021.168690}
    }
    
  • M. Zairi
    T. Boujiha
    A. Ouelli
    Year: 2021
    Improved JPEG image watermarking in data compression domain using block selection strategy
    IOT
    EAI
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.8-2-2021.168690
M. Zairi1,*, T. Boujiha1, A. Ouelli1
  • 1: Engineering Science Laboratory Ibn Tofail University, ENSA – B.P 241 Kenitra, Morocco
*Contact email: mouradzairi@gmail.com

Abstract

Nowadays, the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) is still the most dominant format among various digital image formats used in our daily life. Therefore, watermarking JPEG images is important and useful for many applications such as archive management and image authentication. Along with the embedding capacity and visual quality that must be considered for uncompressed images, the storage size of the watermarked JPEG image should be also considered. In this paper, based on the philosophy behind the JPEG encoder and the statistical properties of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients, we propose a new JPEG image watermarking in the data compression domain, in which only coefficients with values 1 and -1 are expanded to carry message bits, coefficients with values 2 and -2 are shifted, and all the others coefficients remain unchanged. Moreover, a block selection strategy based on the number of 1 and -1 coefficients in each 8×8 block is proposed, which can be utilized to adaptively choose DCT coefficients for data embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that by using the proposed method, we can easily realize high embedding capacity and good visual quality. Furthermore, the storage size increase for the watermarked JPEG image is well lessened.