ew 18(17): e12

Research Article

Location error resilient geo-opportunistic routing for void hole avoidance in USNs

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eai.10-4-2018.154456,
        author={Mehreen  Shah and  Nadeem  Javaid and Arshad  Sher and Zahid  Wadud and Sheeraz  Ahmed},
        title={Location error resilient geo-opportunistic routing for void hole avoidance in USNs},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web and Information Technologies},
        keywords={Underwater sensor networks, depth adjustment, geographic routing, mobile sink},
  • Mehreen Shah
    Nadeem Javaid
    Arshad Sher
    Zahid Wadud
    Sheeraz Ahmed
    Year: 2018
    Location error resilient geo-opportunistic routing for void hole avoidance in USNs
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.10-4-2018.154456
Mehreen Shah1, Nadeem Javaid2,*, Arshad Sher2, Zahid Wadud3,4,*, Sheeraz Ahmed5,6,*
  • 1: The University of Lahore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
  • 2: COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 Pakistan
  • 3: Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
  • 4: University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
  • 5: Career Dynamics Research Center, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
  • 6: Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Dera Ismail Khan 29050, Pakistan
*Contact email: nadeemjavaidqau@gmail.com, zahidmufti@nwfpuet.edu.pk, sheerazahmed306@gmail.com


Underwater sensor networks (USNs) are getting popular for the purpose of monitoring and exploration of undersea terrain. However, underwater communication channel characteristics limits data gathering capacity and duration of monitoring. Efficient routing protocols can improve performance of USNs having dynamic topology and localization errors. This paper presents LETR; a geo-opportunistic routing protocol that considers localization errors and communication void regions. LETR considers transmission range levels for finding neighbor nodes. Sensor nodes search for neighbors by adapting different transmission range levels. The performance of our proposed protocol is evaluated against different parameters through simulations. The simulation results show that LETR significantly improves network performance in terms of energy consumption, packet loss ratio, fraction of void nodes and the total amount of depth adjustment performed by sensor nodes.