Proceedings of 2nd International Multi-Disciplinary Conference Theme: Integrated Sciences and Technologies, IMDC-IST 2021, 7-9 September 2021, Sakarya, Turkey

Research Article

New Trends in Location-Based Services Technology

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  • @INPROCEEDINGS{10.4108/eai.7-9-2021.2314984,
        author={Imran  Ahmad and Raed  Abd-Alhameed},
        title={New Trends in Location-Based Services Technology},
        proceedings={Proceedings of 2nd International Multi-Disciplinary Conference Theme: Integrated Sciences and Technologies, IMDC-IST 2021, 7-9 September 2021, Sakarya, Turkey},
        publisher={EAI},
        proceedings_a={IMDC-IST},
        year={2022},
        month={1},
        keywords={location-based services lbs gsm and rfid systems gps drawbacks of lbs advantages and disadvantages of lbs applications of lbs and benefits of lbs aoa tdoa uwb},
        doi={10.4108/eai.7-9-2021.2314984}
    }
    
  • Imran Ahmad
    Raed Abd-Alhameed
    Year: 2022
    New Trends in Location-Based Services Technology
    IMDC-IST
    EAI
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.7-9-2021.2314984
Imran Ahmad1,*, Raed Abd-Alhameed1
  • 1: Faculty of engineering and informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK
*Contact email: I.ahmad3@bradford.ac.uk

Abstract

Location-Based Services are constantly evolving with the passage of time due to the advancement in technology. The current paper has presented new trends in Location-Based Services technology. The localization infrastructure for LBS includes LBS Indoor Systems, LBS Satellite Systems, LBS GPS System and Outdoor Systems using Terrestrial BSs. The paper also comprises of advantages and disadvantages of different outdoor systems using Terrestrial Base Stations such as Global System for Mobile Communications GSM (with E-OTD), GSM (with CELL-ID), CDMA/GPRS (with A-GPS), CDMA/GPRS (with A-GPS) - AFLT+AGPS, Wireless Assisted GPS and AFLT: GPS One A Hybrid Solution, WCDMA (with IPDL, TA-IPDL and OTDOA-PE), Systems with Smart Antennas and Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS). This paper has discussed different techniques for the existing localization such as localization by Cell-ID, localization by Prediction, localization by Angle of Arrival (AOA), localization by Time of Arrival (TOA) and Observed Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), Localization by Finger Printing and Hybrid Localization AOA-TOA Based. Internet of Things (IOT) involving Low Power Wise Area Network (LPWANs), Cellular 5G based positioning methods, ZigBee (Mesh Protocols) and WiFi6 have been discussed. Furthermore, NLBS (involving Bluetooth Low Energy technology, WLAN and Infrared), UWB and Vehicle to Vehicle Communications have also been covered in this paper.