IoT 16(6): e3

Research Article

Design and Analysis of a Wireless Nanosensor Network for Monitoring Human Lung Cells

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eai.28-9-2015.2261516,
        author={Eisa Zarepour and Najmul Hassan and Mahbub Hassan and Chun Tung Chou and Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani},
        title={Design and Analysis of a Wireless Nanosensor Network for Monitoring Human Lung Cells},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Internet of Things},
        keywords={wnsns, nanoscale communication, health monitoring systems, nanosensors, communication protocols},
  • Eisa Zarepour
    Najmul Hassan
    Mahbub Hassan
    Chun Tung Chou
    Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
    Year: 2015
    Design and Analysis of a Wireless Nanosensor Network for Monitoring Human Lung Cells
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.28-9-2015.2261516
Eisa Zarepour1, Najmul Hassan1,*, Mahbub Hassan1, Chun Tung Chou1, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani2
  • 1: School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Australia
  • 2: Laboratory of Microfluidics & Biomedical Microdevices, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering University of New South Wales, Australia
*Contact email:


Thanks to nanotechnology, it is now possible to fabricate sensor nodes below 100 nanometers in size. Although wireless communication at this scale has not been successfully demonstrated yet, simulations confirm that these sensor nodes would be able to communicate in the terahertz band using graphene as a transmission antenna. These developments suggest that deployment of wireless nanoscale sensor networks (WNSNs) inside human body could be a reality one day. In this paper, we design and analyse a WNSN for monitoring human lung cells. We find that respiration, i.e., the periodic inhalation and exhalation of oxygen and carbon dioxide, is the major process that influences the terahertz channel inside lung cells. The channel is characterized as a two-state channel, where it periodically switches between good and bad states. Using real human respiratory data, we find that the channel absorbs terahertz signal much faster when it is in bad state compared to good state. Our simula- tion experiments confirm that we could reduce transmission power of the nanosensors, and hence the electromagnetic radiation inside lungs due to deployment of WNSN, by a factor of 20 if we could schedule all communication only during good channel states. We propose two duty cycling protocols along with a simple channel estimation algorithm that enables nanosensors to achieve such scheduling.