IoT 16(6): e2

Research Article

Stretchable and Highly Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Hybrid Yarns for Wearable Systems

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eai.28-9-2015.2261421,
        author={Syed Muzahir Abbas and Javad Foroughi and Yogesh Ranga and Ladislau Matekovits and Karu Esselle and Stuart Hay and Michael Heimlich and Farzad Safaei},
        title={Stretchable and Highly Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Hybrid Yarns for Wearable Systems},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Internet of Things},
        keywords={carbon nanotube, graphene, carbon nanotube-graphene, yarns, hybrid yarns, stretchable yarns, highly conductive yarns, wearable},
  • Syed Muzahir Abbas
    Javad Foroughi
    Yogesh Ranga
    Ladislau Matekovits
    Karu Esselle
    Stuart Hay
    Michael Heimlich
    Farzad Safaei
    Year: 2015
    Stretchable and Highly Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Hybrid Yarns for Wearable Systems
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.28-9-2015.2261421
Syed Muzahir Abbas1,*, Javad Foroughi2, Yogesh Ranga1, Ladislau Matekovits3, Karu Esselle1, Stuart Hay4, Michael Heimlich1, Farzad Safaei5
  • 1: Department of Engineering, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia
  • 2: ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519, Australia
  • 3: Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, 24, Duca degli Abruzzi, 10129 Torino, Italy
  • 4: CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710, Australia
  • 5: Information and Communication Technology Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519, Australia
*Contact email:


Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as potential candidates for replacement of conventional metals due to their significant mechanical, electrical, thermal properties and non-oxidizing abilities [1, 2]. The density of CNT composites is about five times lower than copper and around half that of aluminium. Moreover, their thermal conductivity is about ten times that of copper. With the above mentioned distinguishing features, CNTs have been of interest in medical, electronics and antenna applications [3]. CNTs are drawn into yarns by pulling and twisting them from CNT forests. Previously we have presented microwave characterization of CNT yarns [4]. Our results have shown that the CNT yarns exhibits frequency independent resistive behavior and is beneficial for wide-band applications such as ultra-wideband (UWB) and wireless body area networks [4]. Electrical conductivity of a CNT yarn depends on the properties, loading and aspect ratio of the CNTs. It also depends upon the twist angle and the characteristics of the conductive network. By doping or adding materials, such as gold, silver or NiCr, electrical conductivity of CNTs can by varied. In [5], highly conductive carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid yarns are reported. They are obtained by drawing vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into long MWCNT sheets.