Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Law, Social Sciences, and Education, ICLSSE 2022, 28 October 2022, Singaraja, Bali, Indonesia

Research Article

The Cross Embers in the Land of Penjor : Ambivalence and the History of Turbulence of Balinese Christianity identity in Untal-Untal Badung Bali 1930s

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  • @INPROCEEDINGS{10.4108/eai.28-10-2022.2326351,
        author={I Made  Pageh and David Grant  Reeve and I Putu Hendra Mas  Martayana},
        title={The Cross Embers in the Land of Penjor : Ambivalence and the History of Turbulence of Balinese Christianity identity in Untal-Untal Badung Bali 1930s},
        proceedings={Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Law, Social Sciences, and Education, ICLSSE 2022, 28 October 2022, Singaraja, Bali, Indonesia},
        publisher={EAI},
        proceedings_a={ICLSSE},
        year={2023},
        month={1},
        keywords={ambivalence identity sub-altern},
        doi={10.4108/eai.28-10-2022.2326351}
    }
    
  • I Made Pageh
    David Grant Reeve
    I Putu Hendra Mas Martayana
    Year: 2023
    The Cross Embers in the Land of Penjor : Ambivalence and the History of Turbulence of Balinese Christianity identity in Untal-Untal Badung Bali 1930s
    ICLSSE
    EAI
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.28-10-2022.2326351
I Made Pageh1,*, David Grant Reeve2, I Putu Hendra Mas Martayana1
  • 1: History Education Study Program Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia
  • 2: Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture School of Humanities and Languages University of New South Wales
*Contact email: made.pageh@undiksha.ac.id

Abstract

This paper examines the turbulence of Balinese Christian subaltern identity and their ambivalent attitude in responding to the dynamics of local culture in the fourth decade of the twentieth century. The Balinese Christian community in Untal-Untal Badung are Balinese Hindus who have conducted religious conversions since the first zending activity was carried out in 1930. Amid the strict supervision and prohibition of zending and missie due to the realization of the baliseering policy, religious conversion has caused a cultural polemic. This study uses a qualitative research design with two approaches, namely, history and culture. The historical approach helps to observe the dynamics of zending in Bali in 1931-1935. The cultural approach helps explain the upheaval of values and norms in the structure of society due to conversion. This study yielded two important findings. First, the Christianization of Balinese Hindus is evidence of the double standard attitude of the Dutch Colonial Government. On the one hand, prohibiting Christianity in the name of baliseering, but on the other hand, allowing Christianity to take place. Second, the turbulence of cultural identity, between who deserves to be called Balinese, has placed the Untal-Untal Balinese Christian community as a subaltern group that requires a particular strategy to gain recognition.