Proceedings of the First Brawijaya International Conference on Social and Political Sciences, BSPACE, 26-28 November, 2019, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Research Article

Extremism Trails in Santri Cities: Discourses, Networks, and Early Detection

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  • @INPROCEEDINGS{10.4108/eai.26-11-2019.2295181,
        author={Y  Effendi and A Z Hamdi},
        title={Extremism Trails in Santri Cities: Discourses, Networks, and Early Detection},
        proceedings={Proceedings of the First Brawijaya International Conference on Social and Political Sciences, BSPACE, 26-28 November, 2019, Malang, East Java, Indonesia},
        publisher={EAI},
        proceedings_a={B-SPACE},
        year={2020},
        month={5},
        keywords={extremism radicalism discourse santri cities political islam},
        doi={10.4108/eai.26-11-2019.2295181}
    }
    
  • Y Effendi
    A Z Hamdi
    Year: 2020
    Extremism Trails in Santri Cities: Discourses, Networks, and Early Detection
    B-SPACE
    EAI
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.26-11-2019.2295181
Y Effendi1,*, A Z Hamdi2
  • 1: Brawijaya University, Indonesia
  • 2: Sunan Ampel Islamic State University, Indonesia
*Contact email: y.effendi@ub.ac.id

Abstract

This article aimed to describe emerging Islamic extremism in santri cities, which contradicted their image as moderate regions. Employing observation, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussion, this qualitative research tried to understand discourses on extremism and intolerance, actors and their networks, and early detection in youth. The findings of this study indicated that even regions perceived as having moderate religious culture were not immune to the spread of extremist ideology and acts of intolerance. Three discourses; “others”, “thaghut”, and “the legitimate use of violence”, were produced to build intolerant narratives in the public sphere, namely hatred towards Christians, Shia Muslims and minorities, the incompatibility of Pancasila and democracy with Islam, the adoption of Sharia law, and the legitimate use of violence for ordering good and prohibiting evil (amar ma’ruf nahi munkar). Their network was activated through out-of-town people who infiltrated moderate mass organizations and influenced pedagogic local figures. Using conventional and new media such as social media to spread their ideas to young people and women, these radical groups used “Alqamah house” as a camouflage of their movement safe house.