cogcom 17(12): e1

Research Article

Reconfigurable Microstrip Printed Patch Antenna for Future Cognitive Radio Applications

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eai.13-12-2017.153473,
        author={I. T. E.  Elfergani and Mina Al-Rawi and Jonathan Rodriguez and Widad A. Mshwat and Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini and Abdelgader M. Abdalla and Ifiok Otung and Raed Abd-Alhameed},
        title={Reconfigurable Microstrip Printed Patch Antenna for Future Cognitive Radio Applications},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Cognitive Communications},
        keywords={varactor, microstrip antenna; cognitive radio; embedded slot ;GPS ;GSM UMTS; WLAN; LTE.},
  • I. T. E. Elfergani
    Mina Al-Rawi
    Jonathan Rodriguez
    Widad A. Mshwat
    Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini
    Abdelgader M. Abdalla
    Ifiok Otung
    Raed Abd-Alhameed
    Year: 2017
    Reconfigurable Microstrip Printed Patch Antenna for Future Cognitive Radio Applications
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.13-12-2017.153473
I. T. E. Elfergani1,*, Mina Al-Rawi2, Jonathan Rodriguez1,3, Widad A. Mshwat4, Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini1,5, Abdelgader M. Abdalla1, Ifiok Otung3, Raed Abd-Alhameed4
  • 1: Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal
  • 2: Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal
  • 3: University of South Wales, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK
  • 4: School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK
  • 5: School of Information Technology & Computing, American University of Nigeria
*Contact email:


A family of compact microstrip antennas are presented targeting applications such as Long-Term Evolution (LTE), Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN), Universal Mobile Telecommunications system (UMTS), Global System Mobile (GSM) and global positioning system (GPS). These antennas consist of a rectangular shaped structure printed over FR4 substrate. The antenna occupies a small volume of 70x54x1.6mm3. A 50-Ohm strip line was used to feed the proposed antennas. For miniaturization purposes, an I- shaped slot was inserted in the appropriate location on the radiator resulting in the second version (antenna with I-shaped slot). The integration of the slot helped towards shifting the resonant frequency downwards, which potentially created an additional resonant frequency to cover the WLAN2400MHz, but this resonant frequency is still static in nature. Thus, tuning mechanisms were introduced to tune the resonant frequency over a wide continuous frequency range. A lumped capacitor was firstly used as the tuning approach, in which its capacitance was varied from 0.5pF to 3pF, covering the frequency range from 2300MHz to 1500MHz. Secondly, the varactor diode was exploited to verify this; by changing the bias voltage across the varactor from 0.21V to 12.9V, the antenna operates over the targeted range from 1500MHz to 2300MHz. Both the simulated and measured results show a stable performance. The proposed antenna may be suitable for future cognitive radio system.