Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Islamic Studies, AICIS 2019, 1-4 October 2019, Jakarta, Indonesia

Research Article

Hoax and Hate Speech: Social Media andthe Rise of Tribal Nationalism in 2019 Indonesia Presidential Election

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  • @INPROCEEDINGS{10.4108/eai.1-10-2019.2291662,
        author={Budihardjo  Budihardjo and Winarno  Winarno and M  Zuhri and N  Malihah and H  Syaifuddin and G  Cahyono},
        title={Hoax and Hate Speech:  Social Media andthe Rise of Tribal Nationalism in 2019 Indonesia Presidential Election},
        proceedings={Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Islamic Studies, AICIS 2019, 1-4 October 2019, Jakarta, Indonesia},
        publisher={EAI},
        proceedings_a={AICIS},
        year={2020},
        month={2},
        keywords={social media indonesiaelectoral politics nationalism},
        doi={10.4108/eai.1-10-2019.2291662}
    }
    
  • Budihardjo Budihardjo
    Winarno Winarno
    M Zuhri
    N Malihah
    H Syaifuddin
    G Cahyono
    Year: 2020
    Hoax and Hate Speech: Social Media andthe Rise of Tribal Nationalism in 2019 Indonesia Presidential Election
    AICIS
    EAI
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.1-10-2019.2291662
Budihardjo Budihardjo1,*, Winarno Winarno1, M Zuhri1, N Malihah1, H Syaifuddin2, G Cahyono1
  • 1: Institut Agama Islam Indonesia (IAIN), Salatiga
  • 2: Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
*Contact email: budi_stain@yahoo.co.id

Abstract

This article discusses the relationship between social media and the Indonesian presidential election in 2019. It is not surprising that sectarianism and racism have played some significant roles in the election and social media. Both of them were used frequently during the campaign and have contributed to the polarization among Indonesians. However, to set the contestation among ordinary citizens on social media in an opposed binary is incorrect. Marked by the utilization of volunteers, buzzers, and micro-celebrities, the Indonesia presidential election in 2019 has exemplified post-truth politics by utilizing volunteers, buzzers, and some celebrities. While encouraging freedom of expression, social media is used not only to encourage freedom of expression but also to encourage freedom of hate speech; to voice their opinions but silence others. Thus, it is clear that social media and electoral politics have a complex relation. Therefore, it is suggested that there should be mutual shaping between users and algorithms results forming “algorithmic enclaves” which may produce some forms of tribal nationalism. Within these multiple online enclaves, social media users claim and legitimize their own versions of nationalism by excluding equality and justice for others.