7th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks

Research Article

Gaming the Jammer: Is Frequency Hopping Effective?

  • @INPROCEEDINGS{10.1109/WIOPT.2009.5291621,
        author={Konstantinos Pelechrinis and Christos Koufogiannakis and Srikanth Krishnamurthy},
        title={Gaming the Jammer: Is Frequency Hopping Effective?},
        proceedings={7th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks},
        keywords={Measurements Analysis Performance Security IEEE 802.11 Frequency hopping Game theory Jamming},
  • Konstantinos Pelechrinis
    Christos Koufogiannakis
    Srikanth Krishnamurthy
    Year: 2009
    Gaming the Jammer: Is Frequency Hopping Effective?
    DOI: 10.1109/WIOPT.2009.5291621
Konstantinos Pelechrinis1,*, Christos Koufogiannakis1,*, Srikanth Krishnamurthy1,*
  • 1: Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of California, Riverside
*Contact email: kpele@cs.ucr.edu, ckou@cs.ucr.edu, krish@cs.ucr.edu


Frequency hopping has been the most popularly considered approach for alleviating the effects of jamming attacks. In this paper, we provide a novel, measurement-driven, game theoretic framework that captures the interactions between a communication link and an adversarial jammer, possibly with multiple jamming devices, in a wireless network employing frequency hopping (FH). The framework can be used to quantify the efficacy of FH as a jamming countermeasure. Our model accounts for two important factors that affect the aforementioned interactions: (a) the number of orthogonal channels available for use and (b) the frequency separation between these orthogonal bands. If the latter is small, then the energy spill over between two adjacent channels (considered orthogonal) is high; as a result a jammer on an orthogonal band that is adjacent to that used by a legitimate communication, can be extremely effective. We account for both these factors and using our framework we provide bounds on the performance of proactive frequency hopping in alleviating the impact of a jammer. The main contributions of our work are: (a) Construction of a measurement driven game theoretic framework which models the interactions between a jammer and a communication link that employ FH. (b) Extensive experimentation on our indoor testbed in order to quantify the impact of a jammer in a 802.11a/g network. (c) Application of our framework to quantify the efficacy of proactive FH across a variety of 802.11 network configurations. (d) Formal derivation of the optimal strategies for both the link and the jammer in 802.11 networks. Our results demonstrate that frequency hopping is largely inadequate in coping with jamming attacks in current 802.11 networks. In particular, we show that if current systems were to support hundreds of additional channels, FH would form a robust jamming countermeasure.