EAI Endorsed Transactions on Future Internet 16(11): e1

Research Article

Calculating Accurate End-to-End Delay Bounds - You Better Know Your Cross-Traffic

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  • @ARTICLE{10.4108/eai.14-12-2015.2262565,
        author={Steffen Bondorf and Jens Schmitt},
        title={Calculating Accurate End-to-End Delay Bounds - You Better Know Your Cross-Traffic},
        journal={EAI Endorsed Transactions on Future Internet},
        keywords={cross-traffic arrivals, delay bounds, network calculus},
  • Steffen Bondorf
    Jens Schmitt
    Year: 2016
    Calculating Accurate End-to-End Delay Bounds - You Better Know Your Cross-Traffic
    DOI: 10.4108/eai.14-12-2015.2262565
Steffen Bondorf1,*, Jens Schmitt1
  • 1: Distributed Computer Systems (DISCO) Lab, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
*Contact email: bondorf@cs.uni-kl.de


Bounds on the end-to-end delay of data flows play a crucial role in different areas, ranging from certification of hard real-time communication capabilities to quality of experience assurance for end users. Deterministic Network Calculus (DNC) allows to derive worst-case delay bounds; for instance, DNC is applied by the avionics industry to formally verify aircraft networks against strict delay requirements. Calculating tight end-to-end delays, however, was proven to be NP-hard. As a result, analyses focus on deriving fairly accurate bounds with feasible effort. Previous work constantly improved on capturing flow scheduling and cross-traffic multiplexing effects on the analyzed flow's path. In contrast, we present an enhanced analysis of the cross-traffic itself to decrease the bound on its worst-case data arrivals that interfere with the analyzed flow. This improvement is beneficial for both of effects, scheduling and multiplexing. By replacing the currently used procedure to bound cross-traffic arrivals with our new method, we can improve network calculus accuracy considerably - we demonstrate improvements that reduce the worst-case delay bound by more than factor 6.